If that subgroup)]TJ T* 0.0129 Tc 0.0838 Tw [(did not move above 25 percent by the next year)73.9(, the)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(schools would be subject to state review)73.9(. With the introduction of an effective tool,)]TJ T* -0.004 Tc 0.0719 Tw (principals could immediately apply the same tool back)Tj T* 0.0113 Tc 0.0816 Tw (on their campuses with equally effective results. If, as many people realize, the cause of)Tj T* 0.0106 Tc 0.0862 Tw (failures in education is a problem in design, quality)Tj T* 0.0201 Tc 0.0767 Tw (management may be regarded as an ideal systemic)Tj T* 0.0324 Tc 0.0644 Tw (process for managing change in public education)Tj T* -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (\(Frazier l997\). )Tj 1.0909 -1.2636 TD 0.0154 Tc 0.0546 Tw (It is obvious that Anderson had to have firsthand)Tj -1.0909 -1.2636 TD 0.0184 Tw (involvement in the district. )Tj -0.9091 -1.63 TD 0 Tc (�)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0.9091 0 TD 0.0371 Tc 0.0878 Tw (Step 4. It means peculiar and essential character that makes something Teachers arrive each day ready to impart lessons requiring late night and weekend preparation. )Tj -0.9091 -1.6096 TD 0 Tc (�)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0.9091 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.102 Tw (Step 5. Concept of educational management 1. Meeting the customer’s requirements, which helps to instill confidence in the organization, in turn leading to more customers, more sales, and more repeat business 2. )Tj 1.0909 -1.2818 TD 0.0582 Tc 0.1014 Tw (Quality management provides a connection)Tj -1.0909 -1.2818 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.075 Tw (between outcomes and the process by which outcomes)Tj T* 0.004 Tc 0.0928 Tw (are achieved. #')Tj 0 -0.9833 TD (\(! Each person interviewed touched on)Tj T* 0.008 Tw [(Anderson�)54.8(s vision and how it made a difference in trans-)]TJ T* 0.0628 Tw (forming the district. Cole�)100(s professional)]TJ T* 0.0229 Tc 0.1272 Tw [(interests include continuous quality improvement in educational)]TJ T* 0.0227 Tc 0.1274 Tw [(systems, educational law)59.8(,)0( and higher education administration,)]TJ T* 0.0057 Tc 0.0281 Tw (and he is a frequent speaker and consultant on the implementation)Tj T* 0.0056 Tc 0.0787 Tw [(of continuous quality improvement in educational systems. )]TJ -2.2383 -2.15 TD 0.0223 Tc 0.1393 Tw (Perkinson, H. 1995. )]TJ 0 -2.15 TD 0.0322 Tc 0.1236 Tw [(T)79.9(ribus, M. 1993. This paper describes the differences between traditional management and quality management, and shows how Deming's principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) can be applied to education. ��ADD���\w��ps����po�ss�����������=�`T�C��Mrs0X�jƐg�h�Řo�hW��ӊ� �ˆɭ�|L�굓S� ǧ~'9�(�\��ԐsXK=�#��i�Kn�Ɗȭ�a�k�R��X�XR���� ֬V���Ѷa�ڕ��^;D�먝ʰu�b��.�غjm[� )Tj -0.9091 -1.6096 TD 0 Tc (�)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0.9091 0 TD 0.0244 Tc 0.1005 Tw (Step 7. The)Tj T* -0.004 Tc 0.0902 Tw (recognition of professional development and participa-)Tj T* 0.0145 Tc 0.0784 Tw (tory management as part of the criteria for effective)Tj T* -0.004 Tc 0 Tw (quality management drove this effort. Institutionalization and the refor)-7.9(m process: A system)]TJ 0 -1.4087 TD 0 Tw (dynamic perspective. The more systemic the change, the more the)Tj T* -0.0118 Tc 0.0242 Tw (school embodies change in behaviors, culture, and struc-)Tj T* 0.0089 Tw [(ture, and the more lasting the change will be. There are several principles of quality management that the International Standard for Quality Management adopts. She has also)Tj T* 0.0172 Tc 0.0099 Tw [(ser)-39.9(ved as an examiner for the T)99.8(exas Quality A)19.7(ward and currently)]TJ T* 0.0052 Tw [(ser)-39.9(ves as an examiner for the Florida Sterling A)19.7(ward. The ways in which education)]TJ T* 0.0076 Tc 0.0882 Tw (dollars were spent needed to be aligned with creative)Tj T* 0.0082 Tc 0.0964 Tw (solutions. 4: 427-447. Faced with this)Tj T* 0.0122 Tc 0.0962 Tw (challenge as he began his superintendency in 1991,)Tj T* 0.0115 Tc 0.0186 Tw (Anderson proved to be the right person for the job. Since 1998, the CSD)Tj T* -0.004 Tc 0.0064 Tw (increased the percentage of its students who took college)Tj T* 0.0046 Tw (entrance exams from 0 percent to 70 percent. The future of the country depends on a quality education being provided in every school and it plays a major role in the student education. Some of these principles include the redefinition of … )Tj /F8 1 Tf 8.5671 0 TD [(Creating the total quality ef)-20(fective school. 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It is uncommon for such a strong)Tj T* 0.0266 Tw (alliance of ideas to come together in support of a major)Tj T* 0.0735 Tw (philosophical, cultural, and managerial change. )Tj -14.1613 -2.1588 TD -0.0117 Tc 0.0154 Tw [(Morris, D. 1996. )]TJ 0 5.1 -6 0 555.552 496.5 Tm 0 0 0 1 k [(�)-115.6(2002, ASQ)]TJ ET Q 0 0 0 0 k /GS2 gs 55 883 210 -12 re 555.552 527.921 m f* BT /F9 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 57 873 Tm /Cs9 cs 1 scn -0.0007 Tc -0.0034 Tw (Goldberg article 9/19/02 3:09 PM Page 17)Tj ET 1 G 10 M 54 882 m 54 858 l 0 828 m 24 828 l 630 882 m 630 858 l 684 828 m 660 828 l 54 0 m 54 24 l 0 54 m 24 54 l 630 0 m 630 24 l 684 54 m 660 54 l S /Cs9 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 54 882 m 54 858 l 0 828 m 24 828 l 630 882 m 630 858 l 684 828 m 660 828 l 54 0 m 54 24 l 0 54 m 24 54 l 630 0 m 630 24 l 684 54 m 660 54 l S 1 G 0.5 w 318 870 m 366 870 l 318 12 m 366 12 l 12 465 m 12 417 l 672 465 m 672 417 l 342 882 m 342 858 l 342 24 m 342 0 l 0 441 m 24 441 l 660 441 m 684 441 l 342 870 m 348 870 l 348 866.688 345.312 864 342 864 c 338.688 864 336 866.688 336 870 c 336 873.312 338.688 876 342 876 c 345.312 876 348 873.312 348 870 c 342 12 m 348 12 l 348 8.688 345.312 6 342 6 c 338.688 6 336 8.688 336 12 c 336 15.312 338.688 18 342 18 c 345.312 18 348 15.312 348 12 c 12 441 m 18 441 l 18 437.688 15.312 435 12 435 c 8.688 435 6 437.688 6 441 c 6 444.312 8.688 447 12 447 c 15.312 447 18 444.312 18 441 c 672 441 m 678 441 l 678 437.688 675.312 435 672 435 c 668.688 435 666 437.688 666 441 c 666 444.312 668.688 447 672 447 c 675.312 447 678 444.312 678 441 c S /Cs9 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 318 870 m 366 870 l 318 12 m 366 12 l 12 465 m 12 417 l 672 465 m 672 417 l 342 882 m 342 858 l 342 24 m 342 0 l 0 441 m 24 441 l 660 441 m 684 441 l 342 870 m 348 870 l 348 866.688 345.312 864 342 864 c 338.688 864 336 866.688 336 870 c 336 873.312 338.688 876 342 876 c 345.312 876 348 873.312 348 870 c 342 12 m 348 12 l 348 8.688 345.312 6 342 6 c 338.688 6 336 8.688 336 12 c 336 15.312 338.688 18 342 18 c 345.312 18 348 15.312 348 12 c 12 441 m 18 441 l 18 437.688 15.312 435 12 435 c 8.688 435 6 437.688 6 441 c 6 444.312 8.688 447 12 447 c 15.312 447 18 444.312 18 441 c 672 441 m 678 441 l 678 437.688 675.312 435 672 435 c 668.688 435 666 437.688 666 441 c 666 444.312 668.688 447 672 447 c 675.312 447 678 444.312 678 441 c S endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /ProcSet [/PDF /Text ] /Font << /F1 4 0 R /F3 5 0 R /F5 7 0 R /F6 8 0 R /F7 47 0 R /F9 9 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS2 11 0 R /GS3 20 0 R /GS4 42 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs8 12 0 R /Cs9 13 0 R /Cs10 43 0 R >> >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 20624 >> stream Total quality management realize target and mission in education of young generation. )]TJ /F6 1 Tf 22.352 0 TD [(Lancaster)99.7(, Pa.:)]TJ -22.352 -1.4087 TD 0 Tw [(T)99.9(echnomic Publication Co.)]TJ 0 -2.1587 TD 0.0817 Tw (Hord, S., and B. Monk. )Tj ET 0 0 0 0 k 351.99 746.83 194.75 -631 re 319.114 127.039 m f* BT 11 0 0 11 363.99 516.3396 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0.033 Tc 0.0754 Tw (The success at Brazosport is due largely to the)Tj -1.0909 -1.2636 TD 0.0115 Tc 0.0318 Tw (strong leadership of Gerald Anderson. By taking a systemic approach, the district was)Tj T* 0.0347 Tc 0.0738 Tw (able to overcome the old habit of random acts of)Tj T* 0.0115 Tc 0.0941 Tw (improvement. Each interview was semistructured around a set)Tj T* 0 Tw (of predetermined questions. It is very important that management, ministry of education and its agencies take the issue of reward system very seriously. In 1999 Brazosport)Tj T* 0.0358 Tc 0.0688 Tw (ISD was one of only two districts nationwide that)Tj T* 0.0586 Tc 0.0459 Tw (received a site visit from the Malcolm Baldrige)Tj T* 0.0077 Tc 0 Tw [(National Quality A)36.8(ward program. )Tj 1.0909 -1.2636 TD 0.0076 Tc 0.0097 Tw (The final recommendations may be the hardest for)Tj -1.0909 -1.2636 TD 0.0451 Tw [(districts to follow)73.9(. So, if an organization wants to fulfill the requirements for a quality management system, it must develop its management system on a process approach. 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In a world of ever increasing competition, privatization, and internationalization of higher education, many educational institutions in India and abroad 9: 26-32. Change can no longer be instituted without)Tj T* 0.0641 Tc 0.0405 Tw (benchmarks established and data analyzed for)Tj T* 0.0076 Tc 0.0961 Tw (informed decision-making and instructional practice)Tj T* 0 Tw (in the context of the whole district as a system. It is a clear example)Tj T* 0 Tw [(of why strong leadership is a criterion of quality)73.9(. 2001. )0( Edwards)]TJ T* 0.0855 Tw (Deming \(1994, 50\) maintained that �a system is a net-)Tj T* 0.0142 Tw (work of interdependent components that work together to)Tj T* 0.0586 Tw (try to accomplish the aim of the system.� Thus, to bring)Tj T* 0.0663 Tw (about effective change in schools, their components and)Tj T* 0.0108 Tw (interdependencies must be understood and managed as a)Tj T* 0 Tw (system directed at a well-articulated aim. Cambridge, Mass. )Tj /F5 1 Tf 0 -2.14 TD 0.0637 Tc 0.0863 Tw [(Br)-60(yan R. Cole)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 7.3591 0 TD [(is professor and head of the Depar)-20.1(tment of)]TJ -7.3591 -1.375 TD 0.0058 Tc 0.1442 Tw [(Educational Administration and Human Resource Development at)]TJ T* 0.0056 Tc 0.0827 Tw [(T)99.9(exas A&M University)79.7(. Management)Tj ET 0 0 0 0 k 352.23 746.83 194.75 -631 re 332.155 124.346 m f* BT 11 0 0 11 352.232 739.0455 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.004 Tc 0.0507 Tw (and staff began to see that processes could be improved)Tj T* 0.0125 Tc 0.0804 Tw (through the practical application of these tools. It is highly imperative for the firms to plan, design, … 1 g /GS1 gs 0 882 m 0 882 l f q 0.2 i 45 837 594 -792 re 0 882 m W n 0 882.015 684 -882 re W n BT /F5 1 Tf 5.95 0 0 7 137.232 83.9246 Tm 0 0 0 1 k /GS2 gs 0 Tc 0 Tw (8)Tj /F6 1 Tf 0.9245 0 TD 0.0287 Tc [(QM)-34.7(J VOL. )Tj ET 0 0 0 0 k 352.23 746.83 194.75 -625.8 re 331.98 129.232 m f* BT 11 0 0 11 352.232 523.7145 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0.0032 Tc 0.0936 Tw (He notes: �An ineffective school is characterized most)Tj T* 0.0013 Tc 0.0954 Tw [(effectively by its multiplier effects on children�)54.6(s learn-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0662 Tw (ing. Many people in this group)Tj T* 0.002 Tc 0.0909 Tw (had previously studied the effective school research of)Tj T* -0.004 Tc 0.0105 Tw (Larry Lezotte \(Lezotte 1992\) and recognized the correla-)Tj T* 0.0104 Tc 0.0825 Tw [(tions between Deming�)54.7(s and Lezotte�)54.7(s work. They also provide the role model of)]TJ T* 0.0111 Tc 0.076 Tw (being strong instructional leaders. endstream endobj 12 0 obj [/Separation /PANTONE#20653#20CV /DeviceCMYK 15 0 R] endobj 13 0 obj [/Separation /All /DeviceCMYK 16 0 R] endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 9665 >> stream The first is a classification given to school dis-)Tj T* -0.004 Tc 0.0114 Tw [(tricts by the state of T)54.7(exas when they achieve the highest)]TJ T* 0.0282 Tc 0.0647 Tw [(level in their test scores. The people were identified by their participation)]TJ T* 0.0151 Tc 0.0894 Tw (in the change processes that were being chronicled. )Tj 1.0909 -1.2727 TD -0.004 Tc 0.0344 Tw (The next step in the process was to institute training)Tj -1.0909 -1.2727 TD 0.0426 Tc 0.0503 Tw (for the central office staff and all the principals. 1997. South Huntingdon schools: A decade of seeking)Tj 0 -1.4 TD 0.0675 Tw (excellence through total quality in education. The importance of a quality education is critical for success in our society. )]TJ 0 -2.15 TD 0.1193 Tw [(Senge, P)134.6(. Cole)]TJ T* 0.0172 Tc 0.0119 Tw [(received his bachelor�)99.8(s degree from the U.S. Militar)-39.9(y Academy at)]TJ T* 0.0576 Tw [(W)59.8(est Point and his master�)99.8(s degree and doctorate in educational)]TJ T* 0.0353 Tw [(administration \(higher education\) from T)99.7(exas A&M University)79.7(. )Tj /F6 1 Tf 22.3351 0 TD [(Austin, T)99.6(exas:)]TJ -22.3351 -1.4087 TD 0.0172 Tc 0 Tw (Southwest Educational Development Lab. In the school)Tj T* -0.0079 Tc 0.0208 Tw (year 1991-1992, the state made training in quality man-)Tj T* -0.0032 Tc 0.0922 Tw (agement available to schools on a pilot test basis. )]TJ -0.9091 -1.6018 TD 0.0166 Tc 0.0802 Tw [(�)-392.5(What recommendations does the district have for)]TJ 0.9091 -1.2745 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0085 Tw (other districts with respect to preparing and applying)Tj T* 0 Tw [(for the T)54.8(exas Quality A)36.8(ward? \(1993\), is an interaction among four)Tj T* 0.0173 Tc 0.0795 Tw [(phases. )Tj /F8 1 Tf 13.974 0 TD [(T)99.9(otal quality: A missing piece for)]TJ -13.974 -1.4088 TD 0.0322 Tc 0.1294 Tw (educational improvement. The industrial analogy that compares workers and managers to students and teachers is accurate and appropriate. Systems)Tj T* 0.0102 Tc 0.0866 Tw (and processes at the district, campus, and classroom)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0356 Tw (levels were evaluated and redesigned to accomplish the)Tj T* 0.0874 Tw [(identified goals and objectives. )Tj T* -0.0079 Tc 0.046 Tw (School reform and enhanced student achievement must)Tj T* 0.0013 Tc 0.0877 Tw (go beyond simple direct cause and effect analysis and)Tj T* -0.0079 Tc 0.045 Tw (understand the interdependencies and relationships that)Tj T* 0.0077 Tc 0.0813 Tw (exist and influence the temporal performance of sys-)Tj T* -0.0079 Tc 0.0638 Tw (tems, processes, and people functioning within a school)Tj T* -0.0003 Tc 0.0893 Tw (district. What the learning will)Tj T* 0.0239 Tw (look like is no longer predecided. )Tj T* 0.0836 Tw (What opportunities will there be for people to learn? As a per-)Tj T* 0.0182 Tc 0.0786 Tw (formance-driven individual, Anderson had to admit)Tj T* 0.0193 Tc 0.0775 Tw (that even his expectations for those students in low)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0343 Tw (socioeconomic situations were not the same as for oth-)Tj T* 0.0787 Tw (ers in more advantaged situations. The individual�)54.8(s)]TJ T* (internal representation of the environment is)Tj ET 0 0 0 0 k 351.99 746.83 194.75 -631 re 306.429 126.945 m f* BT 11 0 0 11 363.99 739.0455 Tm 0 0 0 1 k (referenced to a cultural framework that is )Tj T* (constantly evolving. 1993. )]TJ /F8 1 Tf 10.8974 0 TD (Out of the crisis. Benefits of a documented quality management system include: 1. 2000. 1979. INTRODUCTION Quality means degree of excellence. 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